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tv   Discussion Focuses on Global Health Risks  CSPAN  November 22, 2016 12:31am-1:18am EST

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pandemic influenza and that is what worries us most. bill gates said there is only two things second kill 10 million people nuclear war and a biologically event . so it has happened before. 1919 even 1957 with the influence the pandemic cost 3% of the world's gdp so relatively small outbreak these are deadly and costly problems. we don't know when the next one will, where will be brcs certain there is the next one. >> with the gates foundation obviously to be involved with the ebola specifically and zika virus how was this that it will be disrupted?
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and social unrest? >> from the gates foundations standpoint first negative you just heard from tom we must be ready for the worst-case scenario. but what we learned from ebola is they're underutilized and not ready and one is the government makes the call when the things happen and it has gotten a lot more attention and to have the right tools. the focus on global health and those investments of global r&d is a big focus of the foundation. in to be something super scary like the movie we saw this last summer house something like zika virus that was thought not to be a
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big threat spread by a frisky does was a particular threat for women who can get pregnant because it causes a catastrophic birth defect. even from the business standpoint for those that would travel on businessmen or women who were completely concerned about their risk if they should they become pregnant or their partner. and to understand we need to do from a governance standpoint into have the tools started with diagnostics. >> and with research and fantasy scandal with homeland's security i don't know how worried that
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general public is but if they affect africa or pregnant women so how many of these are really able to control? what are the components? >> three things that need to be strengthened. and then stop them wherever possible with that global health protection they are institutions that need to be strengthened and will hold genomes sequencing with hand-held sequencer is in the field. the thing that everybody should have heard is if you want to start a business what are the corruption risks is this country ready
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to deal with day in emergency on the health sector? so with a global consensus with than objective and transparent in did is problematic with core capacities are they ready? and holds them accountable because they are all at more risk to channel the assistance because this dave vulnerability everywhere and they contend that pierre whether a drug-resistant bacteria for the next hiv. >> in terms of the gates
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foundation to put together public/private cover - - partnerships call cannot be done? once you have a structure in place? with ebola is there enough that is applicable to the influence the pandemic? >> but the first thing to partner with organizations like ac/dc and others who do help us to understand with of global infrastructure so to figure out that peace in is essential but on the public/private side from the gates foundation that maybe is not well known that we encourage companies with the
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power and the capability to move quickly in the face of an epidemic. even though they're not global health security problems but one of the tools like to use is market failure. because in the first 30 years less than a 3,000 cases but in the case of market failure of the investments the multinationals can work that is subject of market failure , ebola of beckett -- back scenes or vaccination for any pathogen is something we invest and collaborate not just with academia. >> from the cdc perspective
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congress created the cdc foundation to do more faster . and the first to give us resources with the usual government systems and then to provide to those individuals and companies with uh next threat. >> what we should mention is that investment of data so the biggest challenge the last couple of years it would be a massive challenge is to get good day dad could global data that is believable land on time.
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and with that technology to collaborate weather's cdc for the foundation or others to invest in laugh quicker data as everybody knows what is going on. >> technology plays a role when we talk about the battleground seen down in florida where people are upset that don't want their neighborhoods parade is so you pick your poison. dry with the risk of poison or deep? so they have genetically modifying the miskitos? direct there are two approaches of what we call vector control that is means we try not just to think about of back cedar fair before they humans but consult -- control of mosquitos so this is a bad
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mosquito and like malaria you cannot just protected with bed nets it bites all day long so vector control can be challenging with this mosquito. there are two different ways to think about controlling these mosquitos. modification is to let the research stage. in something like you should think of the of mosquitos microbiology. the bacteria that is naturally found in half of the insects on earth and not in this mosquito. so since 2005 and in
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inventing a new way to prevent this mosquito from transmitting zika virus. it was clear over history but now that is used in brazil and colombia three recently announced grant to try to release the miskitos. but global health research and development that seemed very risky that is done with the communities. in terms of innovation and under risk very important to realize when you think about behavior change intervention of communities drive it we don't know how big it will
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scale it just gets to populations that to .5 million with the most recent study done. but when you are faced with the factors and concerned about insecticide a very novel research attack got the miskitos. >> there is our problem with the public health perception importer rico they had the problem to get sprayed so you are taking your chances. >> miskitos are quite difficult to control they can have tonight bottle cap and north full of water they coelho of this spread serious diseases and they are the urban pest like a cockroach there the cockroach of mosquitos we have to do two things. we have to mix and match current tools to control as well as possible and they
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may use -- minimize the use of the insecticide in the future could be very effective. if communities choose to try them. but in miami-dade county we would use aerial insecticide in aerial war aside and the result was impressive almost all were killed overnight in the trap counts were essentially at zero the next batch to apply the treatment after four times basically no more in the spread of the disease stopped. at least in that environment we could stop the outbreak. so once it starts it is too late to do that.
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and then to use the data to improve performance. nudges because it has always bed done that way but we can see what is working for. >> one other innovation is modern family planning. one that we made to get the right communication now they're so those who could become pregnant new-line was going on and how to prevent zika virus ingenue the risk and we continue to fund research and development to make more widely available and affordable contraception used voluntarily. if they are faced with a health threat. >> bring up possible infections and a big crusade
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has spent antibiotics that we are breeding resistant super bugs when really it was a virus and other bacterial infection so are you seeing progress to stop overusing antibiotics to prevent those who are taking them that don't need them like hospitals and the community could. >> this is a big problem i have cared for patients to have infections that cannot be treated with an antibiotic. if we're not careful we will be post antibiotic area. and the economic impact is enormous. it isn't like ammonia or you
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teefive the modern medical care. organ transplant. alsace -- dialysis. chemotherapy. we expect severe infections because we suppress the immune system and then can treat them then we risk undermining much of modern medicine. based on careful analysis between one-third and have a ball into erratic use is completely unnecessarily or too broad so quickly but we can do a lot to be more antibiotics but we will not invent our way out of this we have to outsmart them one
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of the things we have done with the center for what medicare/medicaid services that coolly is expanding the knowledge of what is out there is a broader issue we over trees symptoms so if you look at things like the flu or the common cold made be overusing medications so we need the health system that prioritizes makes the most difference globally we have an even scratched the surface of few years ago i was at the old india institute of medical sciences.
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and nt intensive care unit and a headset i don't know why you are worried every patient has untreatable organisms. >> from a global call the standpoint the two things to add is that first many of the people that we serve in the poorest areas did not have access to antibiotics and wanted it to where they are needed if you do have a bacterial infection that includes anti-microbial sensitive things that our global threats. bought one of the things that is the best approach to enter a microbial resistance that should not go
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unmentioned is vaccination. vaccine preventable diseases don't get to this stage then you don't worry about resistant so they are so profoundly with childhood mortality and any child that could get a vaccine is somebody that is not subjected to antibiotics but there you have a huge public health challenge with places like southern california and northern california does anybody vaccinate their children? it is a real problem of resistance based on john science and personal belief. >> we believe to be the best
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disinfectant so to my knowledge there has never been a vaccination campaign with no paranoiac conspiracy theory. with the gates foundation is full of eradication and we are closer than ever but it is still a challenge. >> increasingly we're making a big dent. >> 350,000 children were disabled by polio. this year so far it is less than 30. but suspicion is a problem and one of the greatest against to humanity in some ways victims of their own success.
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people don't doubt they need the measles vaccine but here but part of this hostage do that we are in this together if they say they are not vaccinated i know certain schools would not allow you unless they are vaccinated is did more of us cloak-and-suiter we have the ability to get beyond quick. >> look over 90 percent with the small vocal group we will never convince, maybe 1% another group wonders and those that were vaccinated
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for flu have gone on tv to tell the story each year we lose 100 kids from influenza 90% and not vaccinated so to make clear they are not just a theoretical risk only by working together by taking those preventive measures. >> was interested to read you did a public health one with chronic diseases but still the underlying disease is tobacco. >> tobacco use continues to kill globally millions of people more than infectious diseases combined with that tobacco prevention seriously
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but peseta policies that can drive smoking rates down with 400,000 her ahead but it is interesting business have different interests if your business has been to have fewer workers that smoke because the productivity may be lower. >> with public health intervention we could partner with the bloomberg foundation with those proven remedies for tobacco control want if it is a profoundly
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positive intervention with over and under nutrition so some very simple things like breast feeding six months to make sure that mom has access to good nutrition and understanding micronutrients . sa as public health and global health that is incredibly e cost-effective so that magic time of that first thousand days of conception is unjust important for your stature but cognitive development. these are reemerging that are working as they are extremely interested. >> this is relevant to the
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health care cost drastically left to care for the smoker. there are 10 million fewer smokers and 2009. if you think of the of payoff that is quite substantial but that is the of wrong pocket problem you spend the money here is saves it over here suisse important whether vaccination or tobacco control and advocating for which is good for society as sole -- as a whole. >> so the idea as we have to spend all the money to prevent that?
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>> with a group of employees there is nhing better than a group of committed passionate employees that is passionate about their own ability to make an impact with their own health and wealth in -- and of well-being that is the best investment any institution can make. >> also blood pressure is another thing like a ticking time bomb. >> we could keep going but i will just mention that hypertension is the silent killer 70% over the age of 65 have high blood pressure 30 percent of the total population has high blood pressure in redondo of very good job we said what is the
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single most what should you do? it turns out there was no analysis to this the answer was clear nothing else could save as many lives but globally it only thing that kills more people than tobacco. controlling it is not hard with the monitoring and one day medication in a $3 trillion per year we get the question right 54 percent of the time 446 as a result strokes or kidney failure cognitive decline or heart attacks. >> if all of this is possible so globally with the ebola a cadet clucked
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epidemic pdf hypertension vaccination so increasingly p. our foundation with many partners and governments is focused on a functioning health the health system. >> when they have threats? >> >> could do elaborate one of our brand and nutrition products but it could you elaborate from a polis these damn point? but beyond advocacy of the public policy standpoint?
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>> do you have a few hours? prevention is underfunded. there is plenty of hospitals that have units named after someone they have cared for no health department that has one that prevented many more heart attacks that occurred on the prevention side allotted it is policy your clinical and then on the up policy side with a smoke-free workplace and then to change the context that includes cessation or quitting or in physical activity that is the closest thing to a wonder drug it improves mood and resistance to cancer and everything
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including diabetes even if you don't lose weight. the and nursing homes or rebuild to pay for blood pressure.
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>> what creates change and compliance. increasingly it is sustained ind part of it is the sense is that you will see more of overtime. >> do you have an impact
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interested by infectious diseases like th >> the country's comeback with yellow outcome hell do we think about incentivizing them to spend preventative expenditure? >> we have to be committed to fill the gaps when someone is
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going to come back objectively and measure again and say yes your investment paid off so the key is that we move to world that is not accountable to the. one of the important things if the costs go i and the economic empowerment and job creation.
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the global readiness for the pandemic which has been hardwired? >> we have a lot more work to do with done a lot to enhance our preparedness and we are committed to helping with that. we don't yet have a vaccine that could work against the flu. we've been cutting days or week's end increasing the ability to produce things that are rapidly deployable.
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we have more than 70 countries involved in this process we've had over 70 sign up for by this time next year 70 to 80 so we are having a common vision of what is needed and where we are now but we need people from outside the government. >> i think we will see more from who because there is some pushing that i would echo only some is helpful and many more investments and i think both on the science and on the monitor inside we are seeing a lot of progress and many investments. >> any questions? during the election campaign we heard a lot about opiates.
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>> this is a problem. iin that usb is more than 80% of the global prescription opiates. this happened over the last 20 years, the number of opiates prescribed has increased by 300 to 400%, and that's been directly correlated with increasing over those is in overdose deaths. the last couple years the drug cartels recognize the marke marg of yet more accessible over cost heroinlower-cost heroine and ily produced fentanyl. last year more people died from the overdose band car crashes. it's a leading cause of death more than 10 million americans have used the leaves more than a 2 million are addicted to them and we need to address this with a comprehensive approach that looks at two different populationroups. when are people that are dependent or predicted.
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if you need better treatment and management of pain. the cpc released through this here guidelines on management of chronic pain. opiates are dangerous drugs. a few too many and you stop breathing and they may be addicting for just a few pills. second for everyone else, we need to protect them because it may be just a few doses but that's greatly improving the prescription patterns. there are communities in parts of the u.s. where new businesses can't start because not enough people can pass agers describing scene. >> guest: my son went in with his shoulder done and oxycontin. they said we don't want our students to be taught in pain.
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it has to be done with a sense of urgency. we've got iwe thought it then ct with those types. >> can i ask another drug-relatedrug-related questio? a lot of states legalized marijuana and they are presented iin mac. as the science good enough on that, but if you are feeling on the safety of increased mariana usage as a results of legalization.
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i made a event driven person, we need more even though our data on young people and their lives that's my number one concern is. i think there are harms that are known but not well under, not widely known and i think we don't know because it hasn't been legal to study. as we know, we need to know more but there are no. would you be advising a state to legalize or criminalized for marijuana use? >> i would say decriminalizing could sign me up.
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legalizing, i want more data. >> i agree. from the business standpoint it's never seemed over the last half decade or so that we have not been very prophylactic war see active. i haven't seen enough studies on the consequences of climate change for the new thoughts of certain foundations and the bad things we are talking about. appear constantly firing.
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it established systems that can find where it emerges, respond rapidly and figure out how to produce. it's where and when it first emerges, that's when we train detectives all over the world. essentially it's what we call a health care. we know if you want to break the glass and the emergency well, it's not going to be well. that's what we have to do to strengthen the systems to make them all safer. >> a couple of comments because we are running out of our time.
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there is no doubt the presentation. they changed the productivity on farms. one of the great thing seem this we have is to protect holder. how does that change animal health and one of the implications for human health. >> one more 32nd. what country has the model system and what makes it so?
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scenic via sensible model the sr the goal is to optimize health which if you look at the system it's not a permanent goal. there's lots of other goals we have our problem is if you look at low-income countries, where they have young women, well-trained, supervised, providing care for the most important problems. if you look at the low income model, that is the most impressive pipes emit into the models are able to keep costs down with them up and focus on the bottom line and help us keep people live longer or productive lives and. i love the cost of the front-line health-care worker
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using that nutrition well beyond baby care. really classic things you know have a profound impact and so with relatively low education because human resources very big issue, they have a plan to transform the health in their entire country in a very, very poor interview. they've already made progress on and have plans for the future that's exciting to see. >> thank you so much. [applause]
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>> we are asking students to participate in this year's video documeary competition by telling us what is the most urgent issue f the next president and the incomi congress to address in 2017. the competition is open to all middle school and high school students grades six through 12. students can work alone or in a group of u to three to produce a five to seven minute documentary on the issues and a grand prize of $5,000 will go to the student or team with the best overall entry. $100,000 in cash prizes will be awarded and shared between a 150 students and 53 teachers. this year's deadline is january 20, 20 inauguration
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day. for more information, go to the website. >> admiral michael rogers have cyber command and director of the national security agency spoke about cyber threats and the role of the public and private sectors in preventing attacks. this conversation was purveying "the wall street journal" conference. >> good morning everybody. i just have to clarify, you are director of the nsa, printed chicago. >> i'm not a congressman from michigan. [laughter] >> okay we have that out of the way and we can make our own headlines. how worried should the ceos be about the state of cybersecurity? >> delete quietly need
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attention, yes, is there a role to play them to play in this lacks >> i a lot of time spending it as the result of the missions assigned to nsa one of the things i would normally talk about is talk about the kind of conversation you are having with your cio can't talk about how you and your leader are setting expectations for what he would do. set a different way that defends the work. you don't want your network security team deciding unilaterally what is important to you as an organization. you need to set that tone. i do that in my own organization through my own networks. here's the critical information i need. here's the critical data that i need access to. that's what you need to prioritize and focus on. from the ceo perspective we can

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